Catching up with Greg Gause on Saudi Arabia, Arabic and Texas A&M

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F. Gregory Gause III is the head of the International Affairs Department at the Bush School of Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University and a world-renowned expert on Saudi politics. I caught up with Professor Gause recently in Rehoboth Beach. Some questions of interest to Real World Arabic readers that I asked my old friend and fellow Delaware native:

In your recent Foreign Affairs article you challenged a popular policy notion that the Saudi government can somehow control or stop Global Salafism. You argued that they lost control decades ago “if they ever really had it.” I happen to agree with you 100%. At the biggest picture counter-terrorism policy level, what does this mean in dealing with this new spread of populist-ISISism?

I think it means two things, one Saudi-centric and one having to do with, if you will, the “targets” of salafi proselytization, whether that be by Saudi-supported institutions or by violent jihadists like ISIS.

Continue reading “Catching up with Greg Gause on Saudi Arabia, Arabic and Texas A&M”

Reader Mail: How can I diplomatically Navigate unsolicited Conversations about Religion in Arabic?

A reader from Cairo writes: 

Nathan, I love your website. I hope you can help me with one of the Situational Arabic challenges that you write about. I  am working in Cairo and studying Arabic. Sometimes people here ask me about religion.  There is one man who works at the grocery store near my apartment who is even more assertive about having conversations about it yet I can’t avoid him since it’s the only store to buy food. It makes me feel uncomfortable because my Arabic is more formal and book-oriented. I never know what to say. Any advice on how to approach the situation in Arabic? Fernando

Continue reading “Reader Mail: How can I diplomatically Navigate unsolicited Conversations about Religion in Arabic?”

Reader Mail: how does the Arabic student overcome Cultural miscommunication About Scheduling?

A college student writes in: 

I have recently been experiencing some troubles when dealing with some Saudi friends. I’m not currently in the Middle East, but I have made friends with a lot of university students, to help improve my spoken Arabic skills. Anyway, I have had difficulty making plans to do things with some people. I make myself available for the day that we plan something and then they essentially back out, or don’t respond to me if I ask what’s going on and now all of a sudden I have nothing to do. Additionally, sometimes they say they are going “somewhere” and “will be back late” and can’t do anything, when I know that they normally stay up late. So my question is, is this an area where they are culturally supposed to be vague or indirect if they’ve maybe made other plans, or if those plans don’t include me? Maybe they are translating themselves directly from Arabic to English and something’s not right? I couldn’t find any real info online about this, so I was hoping you’d have some info on the subject and would be able to write a post on it, as I’m sure it would help others in the future. I’m really glad I found your blog, something like this has been much needed since I’m essentially self-studying Arabic now, after having taken one year in college. N.

Continue reading “Reader Mail: how does the Arabic student overcome Cultural miscommunication About Scheduling?”

Talking Arabic as a 2nd Language Teaching & Learning Strategies with David Wilmsen

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Professor Wilmsen is author of several books on Arabic, including his most recent Arabic Indefinites, Interrogatives and Negators: A Linguistic History of Western Dialects, and has taught the language at Georgetown University, The American University in Cairo, The American University of Beirut, and now the American University of Sharjah. I sat down with my friend and former Professor to discuss how today’s students can get good at Arabic.

Many people don’t realize this – you have become a distinguished scholar of Arabic yet you didn’t know a word of the language until you were 31 years old. What does that say about the theory that “younger is better” when it comes to language acquisition?

In theoretical linguistics, there is an assumption that younger is better, and that there is a certain critical period where one needs to learn a language. Some say that window ends five years of age, other say 15 years of age. In any case, there seems to be agreement that once you reach adulthood it closes off.

I say it’s not so simple. Many of these debates cover whether adult learners use the same parts of brain, as children do, but we can’t really study what’s in the brain. We can’t see it. We really don’t know.

The second thing is that adults are involved in so many things that kids aren’t involved in. Adults have more things on their mind, like career and family. Whereas kids can absorb everything of language is around them. So perhaps it is more a question of priorities and not whether there is a natural advantage for children versus adults.

Theoretically, 31 is later, but I have seen others who have learned at that age too so it’s not just me. I may be slightly talented at learning languages, but I had a certain interest and passion that was key. As an adult, if you decide you are going to learn a language, you have to find something about that language that turns you on. It’s a way of self-motivation.

Find things that you like about the language. A personal example: Once when I was going through a dictionary of Egyptian Arabic, trying to find out how many words I know, I found myself smiling in delight at the sheer fun of hearing the words in my mind’s ear, as it were, while reading them off. This isn’t just another exercise focusing on grammar rules. That’s the kind of thing that gets me excited.

You recently moved from the American University of Beirut to the American University of Sharjah. The Gulf in general is carving out a reputation in the Arabic studies field. Where would you like to see the program after a couple of years?

As you have been writing about at Real World Arabic, given the relative or perceived risk of places like Egypt, the Gulf has a justified reputation of being as safe as milk. That’s a big advantage for universities here. There is a boom now.

What I hope to do is make the American University of Sharjah the center of it.

We have 30 students here right now. The AUS has exchange agreements with other universities in the West. Where they can send roughly equal numbers of Emiratis to American universities, and vice versa. Most the students are American but Maastrict University in Holland is also very active in sending students to Sharjah.

One thing I would say is that the UAE and the Gulf have a reputation of being hard for Arabic students to get speaking opportunities due to the presence of many foreign workers. Some places in the UAE are challenging in this regard, such as Dubai. But there have been many studies lately which call into question the myth that full immersion is the only way to go. There are lots of benefits for students to be inserted into environments where they find bi-lingual speakers and can make real gains.

You have taught thousands of students over the years. Is there a specific trait that you see in those students who reach the highest levels of Arabic proficiency?

It is hard to point to any specific trait or characteristic.

What I have seen in common with all students who reached a very high level is that they found that Arabic or some element of Arabic was worth investigating for its own sake. My best students – probably all were motivated by a degree by career advancement. But they still found an element of the language that they were captured by. They found it fascinating and that drove them to reach a very high level.

Many years ago, when I took your class, you said something along the lines of “Fusha is Amiya.” That has stuck with me given that many approaches to teaching seem to portray, perhaps unintentionally, a significant Gap between the two which can make it intimidating for Arabic students. Is in fact “Fusha Amiya?”

Yes. Fusha and Amiya have the same types of constructions and agreement between adjectives, gender etc. And if you do actual word counts they are surprisingly similar. Take for example the Frequency Dictionary of Arabic by Dill Parkinson and Tim Buckwalter. They found that about 80% of the vocabulary is shared.

The major difference between Fusha and Amiya is in two areas, interrogation and negation. For example, ma hatha matha taamel, shu hatha, eysh hatha etc. But the structures and the vocabulary are shared.

If I might play devil’s advocate about what you identify as “the major differences.” If the major difference  is  Ma instead of Shu or Eysh – mentally isn’t that something that is as much a Tweak as anything? Plugging one word in here and there? A difference for sure, but not the massive gulf that is sometimes portrayed that intimidates Arabic students…..

Yes. Good point.

Does your view on the similarities between Fusha and Amaya influence your teaching tactics?

Yes. Here is one example. Oftentimes I have “heritage learners,” meaning people from Middle Eastern backgrounds who grew up in Europe or the US, who have spoken Arabic at home, but never learned formal. What I find is that they often speak colloquial Arabic at nearly native speaker levels, while often having a minimal command of Fusha. When they have trouble with a certain point in Fusha, I say to them “well how do you say that in Amiya?’ And “Boom” they immediately understand.

What’s the # 1 mistake that you see Arabic students make that prevents them from reaching a high level?

They let themselves get intimated. Everyone is going to find learning Arabic hard. It’s natural.

If you find something in the early stages becomes challenging, it is important to figure out how you can get over that early stage hurdle. Like math, if you don’t get the early lessons, you won’t get the later lessons.

For example, I sometimes give a struggling student a trick for mastering verb conjugations: I say, “I want you to go home and take one verb, practice it in the past, do it for half an hour; go do something else, come back and do it for ten minutes, go do something else, come back.” This is a workable technique that has the backing of research. Don’t let that mental block prevent you from making permanent progress.

However, there is an aspect to it that the students aren’t responsible for. Teachers often want to teach them Fusha. Whereas I think you should learn to speak the language first. For example, if I go and teach you Arabic, words like Al-Bab [door], Al-Beet [house], Muftah Al-Siyyara [car keys]. Not a single one is cognate to a European language, but we are talking about things that are in the House. These are more conceptually close to hand, then if we are talking about Al-Umam Al-Mutahada (the UN). They are conceptually closer and focusing on these at an early stage can be more effective.

 

What’s a benchmark for level of fluency the student should be aiming for?

I had a teacher of Spanish once who laid out a role of thumb that I think is quite good. She said the goal of a language student shouldn’t be that a student be mistaken for a native speaker of a region they are in. If in Mexico, be mistaken as a Mexican, by Mexicans. You want to be mistaken for a native speaker of Spanish from some other region, for example, while you are in Mexico, you might be mistaken for someone from Puerto Rico. That’s a good benchmark. When I was in Cairo, people would sometimes ask are you from Tunis? Then I once got “are you from Bosnia.” But the moment I thought I had really arrived was when someone asked me if I was from Alexandria.

In the last ten years in the Middle East social media has exploded, you have Facebook, Twitter. More people are both writing in Amiya, for social reasons,t hat wasn’t happening before. And while Moroccans and Iraqis have been exposed to Egyptian dialect through cinema and music for well over half a century, this new trend seems different. Are the borders between Dialects being diluted because of this changes?

With television I think this was happening before social media. A colleague of mine has been looking at this . There is a sort of common Gulf dialect, shared from Kuwait to Muscat, Oman; he finds it in all Gulf States, a pan Gulf dialect;

It’s happening from Morocco to the Gulf. People know more about Moroccan Arabic outside of Morocco than ever before.   When you are looking at social media, you are looking at the words, commentary that is written. If you have got a blog, anyone who can write Arabic can write on it. You are now seeing Moroccans writing on Lebanese blogs in Colloquial. You don’t just hear it, you see it. It’s an interesting trend to watch, and it certainly presents good opportunities for those studying Arabic, because seeing it written cements it in your mind.

Finally, do you have any advice on a specific tactic that you tell all Arabic students to follow?

Get to know one text really well. Text can be defined very broadly. It could be a movie, a written text, a transcription, for example, a transcription of an Amiya discussion. If you read it over and over again, you learn. The text could be any extended discourse in any language. What you have written about on your website – I did the same thing with an Egyptian film called Al-Bey al-Bawwab. About a man coming from Upper Egypt and starting out as a doorman but who gets rich in real estate scams. I used that as a test of my proficiency. I could understand the plot at first. That was a way of measuring my own progress by how much more I understood the film each time I watched it.

 

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Weekly Spoken Arabic Transcript Drill: #1

New Feature: Each week I will do a practical analysis of a transcript of conversation in colloquial Arabic, emphasizing the points students should be focusing on to develop high-level spoken. Two Learning Assumptions behind this post:

  • #1 – because “Fusha is Amaya” reading/seeing Spoken Dialects in print allows people who have studied MSA to make certain connotations and Fast-Track their retention through an economies of scale studying effect
  • #2 – Transcript work combined with audio allows you to recognize  and internalize accent differences and pronunciation differences faster than they would through the normal process of learning Colloquial.

This week’s Drill: 

The first 20 minutes of a 2015 documentary on Southern Egypt, a poor, rural and under developed region known as The Said (see transcript here).  Why did I choose this one? It is one degree of difficulty to communicate with the educated Arabic intellectual. It is more difficult to understand and to communicate with  those from what we might call “blue-collar backgrounds,” in this case construction workers from the Said. If you can do that, you can engage with anyone.

13 takeaways from the First 20 minutes

Continue reading “Weekly Spoken Arabic Transcript Drill: #1”

How to neutralize Arabic curse words said to you without swearing yourself

I just finished a new Arabic-related book that I strongly recommend:

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This book will be a walk down memory lane for anyone who has studied Arabic in the Middle East. More on the book’s content another time.

First, however, I want to thank the author for some interesting passages here and there on cursing (especially in the chapters on Lebanon).

Swearing is a part of all languages. People curse at work or in life to make specific points they couldn’t make otherwise using conventional terminology. It is a fundamental part of communication in every culture.

Until now I had been holding back on writing about Arabic curse words, even though I could write 50 posts on things I’ve seen and heard over the years. After reading “All Strangers Are Kin” I have changed my mind.

But within certain limits of course. I will only write about Arabic cursing if there is a specific situation with practical takeaways on “what to do” in certain Real-World situations that Arabic students might possible encounter in the Middle East.

Here is one Case Study: 

In 2012 I was in Doha, Qatar and needed to kill several hours in the downtown area. So I thought, I’ll find a coffee shop and wait there.

Continue reading “How to neutralize Arabic curse words said to you without swearing yourself”

A review of the Olive Tree Dictionary on Spoken Levantine Arabic

I spent several hours today at the Library getting a closer look at the various spoken Arabic dictionaries in circulation so the chapter on written resources in my upcoming book on developing high-level spoken Arabic skills is as practically useful as possible.

One resource that I had heard many good things about but hadn’t seen myself until this morning is The Olive Tree. After flipping through it for an hour, now I understand why it is so highly regarded.

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The book is truly indispensable for Arabic students. Frankly, I don’t see how anyone whose priority is Levantine Dialect can get away with not having a copy (or at least regular access to one)

The Only “Bad” News: 

Continue reading “A review of the Olive Tree Dictionary on Spoken Levantine Arabic”

Learning Lebanese Dialect by “Seeing It Spoken” via Media Transcripts

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The best way to Fast-Track your development of spoken Arabic skills is by seeing spoken in action as much as possible.

Why?

Because “Seeing spoken Arabic” on paper activates your brain from multiple angles, not just the one or two (speak, hear) that is common with most approaches to teaching Arabic. It significantly increases the chances that information will be retained.

Continue reading “Learning Lebanese Dialect by “Seeing It Spoken” via Media Transcripts”

The California man in 1892 who knew Arabic and Turkish “hereditarily.” Could it be true?

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In 1892, the Washington Post wrote of a Mr. Watson from California – who was reputed to be able to speak Turkish and Arabic despite never having had any exposure whatsoever the language.

Here is the full article typed out:  

A story is told in this city which presents an interesting problem in psychology and raises some new points in connection with the doctrine of heredity, says the San Francisco Chronicle. We do not vouch for the truth of the story. We only tell it as it was told to us.

Continue reading “The California man in 1892 who knew Arabic and Turkish “hereditarily.” Could it be true?”

What’s the situation for Arabic study in Egypt? My chat with the Directors of ILI

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Before 2011 Cairo was the undisputed top location to study Arabic in the Middle East. The last 5 years have been tough for Egypt and its schools that specialize in teaching Arabic to Americans and Europeans. Many US study abroad administrators and students are wondering what is the situation now, in 2016?

To find out more, I caught up with Aimen Hassanen, Managing Director of Cairo’s International Language Institute, and Karim Rogers, Executive Director of the International House Cairo, for a frank talk:

Let’s start with the Elephant in the Room – security. Yes it’s a serious issue that needs to be taken into consideration. However, it is also true that the media tends to dwell on negatives. This can make it hard for those outside of Cairo to know exactly what is going on. So let me just ask directly: is Egypt a safe place to study Arabic?

In my honest opinion, the American Embassy is extremely conservative with the travel warnings compared to European embassies. If you look at the European embassies, Cairo is in the Green.

Even during the Revolution, despite the fact that we had a lot of action in the areas near our school, we never shut a single day. We’ve been working very hard with universities to revive business; it takes time.

Our #1 strategy post-Revolution is attract back universities and study abroad customers. And we are seeing some great results. For example, this past year, for the first time in 5 years we had 5 [European] universities come back and complete a full-academic semester. That’s the first time that has happened post-Revolution.

Compared to Europe, these schools are finding Egypt a Safe haven.

Is this caution [about security] strictly from the US Embassy or is it American institutions in general? What about US universities that have sent students to Cairo to study Arabic in the past?

Yes, this seems to be American institutions in general.

Some of the [American] university professors are slightly conservative [about the risk issue]. Although this summer we have had lots of students from NYU, Texas, Georgetown.

However, at ILI we have always focused more on the European market, less so on the US market and so we’ve had more European students than Americans. Europe has been our core market. But we are going to the MESA conference in Boston this November.

Today in the US and Europe we have high schools and even elementary schools competing to offers languages like Chinese, Arabic etc. This wasn’t happening 15 or 20 years ago. Are you seeing that the Arabic language capabilities of students – at the time they come to ILI have improved compared to the past?

We are finding that Europeans at the point of placement when they come to us in Cairo – are at a higher level compared to US students, on average. If you look at US high schools, the focus is on Spanish, than Chinese.

Arabic is higher on the agenda in Europe. For example, there are more Arabic degree programs at European universities compared to the US.

Post-Revolution the Arabic level of Europeans has noticeably gone up. They have had to adapt. There is more and more interest in the higher level [government] positions that require Arabic, to focus in great detail on diplomatic , economic topics for example.

Such a surge in interest from European embassies has even forced us to adjust our placement system… we are now authorized to run the C2 diplomatic tests from ILI; most of the European diplomats are passing with flying colors.

Is it fair to say that the Europeans consider the learning of Arabic more important to successful diplomatic work than the Americans? Based on what you are seeing from your perch at ILI… 

Absolutely. The European diplomats definitely take the learning of Arabic more seriously than their American counterparts. … John Casson, the British ambassador to Egypt, is practically a native speaker!

What are the goals for ILI during the next few years?

In 2017, our #1 goal is to ensure we get the Institute back to 100% occupancy. We want to return all of our customers and get back to 2010 levels. We are headed in that direction.

Post-2017, we want to expand to other areas of Cairo – places like Maadi, which are in a different part of the city than our main facility.

Building up our Teaching Arabic as a foreign language program is a huge priority. This is something we had done very well at in the past but got away from. Many European universities are looking for their teaching instructors to have more formal credentials in this regard. Our program is catering to both Egyptians and non-native Arabic speakers and it’s a major priority for us.

Another long-term goal is to expand into the international market. Scaling the market – but options are limited in the current Middle East situation.

That’s very interesting given the situation now in the broader Middle East. I don’t want you to give away your business strategy – but anything you want to share about particular ideas on location? 

We are looking around at various places.

Jordan we are not a fan of. When the Arab Spring happened, many foreign universities decided to concentrate on Jordan as a study abroad location instead of Egypt. But the schools and the students were surprised at how expensive Jordan was comparatively. Many people thought the lifestyle there was less interesting than Cairo…they also found that the Arabic levels of the students coming out of these programs wasn’t as good as from Egypt.

It’s a tough market – in 2006 we set up a school in Syria.  We wanted to strategically position ourselves in Syria. We saw that as a very strategic market. But then there was the tragic assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri. We left almost immediately after that happened given that the Syrians were accused.

We are exploring other locations and will continue to evaluate the market.

I am trying to choose the phrase that most accurately characterizes your outlook on the situation for ILI and Arabic study in general in Cairo based on what I have heard from you here. Am I right to say you are “cautiously optimistic?” 

No. We are “very optimistic.”

 

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Coming in September – The E-Text Book on developing practical spoken Arabic skills